Observation is one of the tools used in natural situations with the aim of monitoring the actual performance of the behavior of individuals, and it is a very useful method, and it is the most powerful data collection tool that can be used, because it monitors the natural, or actual, performance or behavior of the individual, and observation is usually used in quantitative research.
Definition of note
Observation is defined as observing a behavior or phenomenon, recording observations and using appropriate methods to study the behavior or phenomenon in order to achieve results or access accurate information.
- Determine the purpose of the observation.
- Legalization of data logging.
- Describe and interpret this data as it occurs.
- Training the researcher on observation tools, taking notes and results.
- Ensure that the information and data are correct.
- Organize information collection.
It is the observation of the presence of some students who suffer from hyperactivity or attention disorder, it is called simple observation and it is a type of non-scientific observation. The researcher observes phenomena and events by chance without prior preparation and planning and without using legal means and tools.
This type of observation is useful in exploratory studies, in exploratory studies, and in preliminary studies of a problem that the researcher wants to research and gather information about.
Observing the classroom interaction patterns based on the preparation of a previous plan, specifying the place and time, and using all audio-visual means to collect and record information.
In which the researcher collects information through his participation in the life of the group, meaning that the researcher lives with the members of the group for a certain period and participates in all their activities and while living with them, he records all his observations regularly and uses studies related to behavioral deviation.
This type of observation requires careful skill in how to adapt to the group that the researcher wants to study, and requires a great relationship and effort during the study period.
Also, this type of observation sometimes leads to dangers that lead to the researcher’s life if the group he wants to study discovers his identity, for example monitoring the characteristics of people with mental disabilities in order to prepare a program appropriate to their characteristics.
It is an observation that includes more than looking or listening in a particular social situation without participating in it. The observer tries not to appear in the situation as much as possible, but listens to what is going on between individuals and the conversations and emotions that are imprinted on their faces.
This method is characterized by getting rid of the effects of the artificial situation in the formal methods.
Such as answering specific questions in writing or orally, and the person may not give honest and explicit answers about them, but rather builds his answer on the basis of what the interviewer expects.
For example, the researcher assisting the activity of a group of individuals or the observation that the researcher studies or studies a specific phenomenon in a school, such as the roles of teachers in practicing the activity.
- It is an effective way to study aspects of human behavior.
- You don’t need much effort.
- Don’t rely too much on conclusions.
- It helps the researcher to collect information directly as it happens.
- Don’t rely on past things and reflections like other methods.
- Requires less samples to be studied than examined
- Some people sometimes make false impressions when they feel that they are being observed.
- External factors may affect the observation process, such as geographical factors and personal emergency factors facing the researcher.
- Observation sometimes takes a long time.
- Observation requires continuous training on how to use the machines, devices, and means used by the researcher in collecting information.
The difference between an interview and a questionnaire
The interview is an oral questionnaire and not like an electronic questionnaire, through which the researcher collects information in an oral way directly from the examinee, and in order to know how to write research interview questions, the difference between the interview and the questionnaire lies in that the examinee is the one who writes the answer to the questions while the researcher writes himself The answers examined in the interview.
An interview is a dialogue that takes place between the interviewer and the person being interviewed.
A meeting takes place between the interviewer or the researcher who asks questions to the respondent face to face, and the researcher records the answers on the forms. 
The purpose of the interview
The interview aims to obtain the information that the researcher wants from the respondent and to identify their features, feelings and behaviors in a particular situation.
And it is important from the rest of the measuring tools because it is used with children and people who do not know how to read and write, the elderly, the infirm, the disabled or the sick, and the examinees who do not want to give their opinions and information about their writing, and when the subject of the study requires the researcher to familiarize himself with the phenomenon or the study community, Or collecting information from a number of individuals living and working together, such as workers in factories, or teachers in schools – makes him resort to searching for the steps of designing an interview form – for example, or obtaining a qualitative description of reality, not quantitatively or numerically.
types of interview
In contrast to the types of personal interviews, the interview is divided in terms of style into two types:
It is characterized by a spirit of affection between the respondent and the respondent, and the relationship between them may rise to friendship, and takes the form of a simple conversation in dealing with issues with the respondent, and this type of midwife is used in the study of individual cases in the service of the individual, their diagnosis and treatment.
It is the interview whose questions are prepared in a codified manner in terms of language and style, and are finally added in an interview form, in which the respondent adheres to answering them, and the researcher wakes up by recording those answers during the interview process, and with the knowledge of the respondent without hiding from him.
Among the types of interview in terms of purpose are the following:
Information and data gathering interview
And it is in order to choose or for the sake of exploratory studies, and to collect the largest amount of information and data related to the subject and the secondary information and data that are related to the subject and indirectly. The interviewer is interested in knowing the history of the case, the individual’s educational level, economic level, type of work, profession or craft, religion and nationality.
It depends on the information that is collected about the situation, phenomenon or problem, and the focus is on the overlapping factors in terms of their variance and the contrast of the relationships that link them to each other, which showed the phenomenon or situation from latency to behavioral publicity, and this type depends on the principle of participation between the respondent and the respondent.
It aims to share the interviewer in choosing the appropriate solutions that are in line with his personal, personal and environmental capabilities and capabilities so that there is no setback for the individual.
While the interview is divided in terms of the degree of interest and is divided into two types:
You are interested in the topic in general, whether it is an interview that gathers information or a diagnostic interview, and it may also target the unit of the topic.
It is carried out by the researcher after clarification of the main basic features of the case or the phenomenon and after knowing the reasons and individuals who were behind the occurrence of the phenomenon, and also aims to focus on the crux of the matter, whether in terms of information gathering or diagnosis.
The interview is divided according to the number of sources of information into:
The interview is one-on-one or in person
The researcher’s interview with the respondent as the only party in the presence of the problem. The study is called an individual case study. The importance of the personal interview can be that it aims to obtain the information that the researcher wants from the respondent and to identify their features, feelings and behaviors in a particular situation.
The number of participants in committing it is two, which makes the researcher conduct joint interviews while collecting the data.
An interview in which more than two people participate, and the origin is the size of the community, such as a sports, cultural or artistic activity group
It is an interview that the researcher conducts with the local community or the village community, and it may be according to questions prepared in an interview form.
It is a tool for collecting information related to the subject of the research through a specific form that contains a number of questions arranged in an appropriate logical manner that is distributed to specific people to fill out.
How is the questionnaire designed?
The questionnaire is designed through several steps as follows:
- Defining the subject of the study in general and its sub-topics.
- Formulate a set of questions on each sub-topic so that all the questions are necessary and abundant
- Conducting a pilot test on it by presenting it to a specific number of members of the study community before its final approval.
- Amending the questionnaire based on previous suggestions and printing it permanently.
- Distribute it to non-study in an appropriate manner.
Some things must be taken into account when formulating the questionnaire questions, which are as follows:
- Questions should be formulated clearly and in a language that matches the level of the respondents
- Avoid using incomprehensible terms and expressions.
- Be appropriate in length and avoid long questions.
- In the case of questions that include tests and possible answers, all possible possibilities for an answer must be developed, and an item should be left open for the possibility of other options.
- Start with the easy, no-brainer questions.
- Start with general questions and then private or personal questions.
- Ensure that the content of the idea applies to all members of the sample
- Highlight the word that makes up the paragraph key
- Avoid the relevant ringtones and inappropriate alternatives
- Use words and terms that are easy to explain.
Types of survey questions
Closed questions with specific answers
They are questions that ask the question and write the specific answers, and there is no opportunity for the examinee to express his opinion, and they are very distinctive and easy questions, and they do not measure the abilities of the examinee.
It gives the subject an opportunity to justify his choice, the difficulty of making a census because everything has a reason, the questionnaire is a category that does not depend on written content.
- It saves a lot of time and effort for the researcher in the process of collecting information.
- The possibility of covering many areas in a reasonable period of time
- It gives the respondents complete freedom to choose the appropriate time and conditions
- Reduces the chances of bias, whether for the researcher or the interviewee.
- It enables the researcher to collect data from a large sample in a short period of time.
- The sample members are exposed to the same items and the same picture.
- It does not allow the researcher to interfere in the answers of the examinee.
Disadvantages of the questionnaire
- Few ways to detect honesty and consistency.
- The effect of the questionnaire validity on the extent to which the respondent accepted it.
- The respondent may leave a number of paragraphs of the questionnaire because he does not remember information indicating the identity of the respondent.
- It is difficult to determine who did not re-evaluate the questionnaire because it remembers information indicating the identity of the respondent.
- You need to follow up to get the right number
- If the respondent does not understand some of the questions in the questionnaire, he gives a different answer.
- The presence of unanswered questions by the respondent due to forgetfulness or unwillingness.